SQA Basic Questions

What is Quality?

Quality is how you Inspires customers and Fulfilling their needs, requirement, and expectation within a defined time, budget, and resources.

Quality Definition by Institutions

  • Degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfils requirements (ISO)
  • The degree to which a system, component, or process meets specified requirements. (IEEE)
  • Quality is a system of means to economically produce goods or services which satisfy customers’ requirements. (Japanese Industrial Standards Committee, 1981)
  • Quality is a degree of excellence. (Webster)
  • Quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy given needs. (American Society for Quality)
  • Quality, an inherent or distinguishing characteristic, a degree or grade of excellence. (American Heritage Dictionary, 1996)

Quality Definition by Experts

  • Quality is fitness for use. (Juran, 1974)
  • Quality means conformance to requirements. (Philip B. Crosby, 1979)
  • Quality consists of freedom from deficiencies. (Joseph M. Juran, 1988)
  • Quality is not an act, it is a habit. (Aristotle)
  • Conformance to explicitly stated functional and performance requirements, explicitly documented development standards, and implicit characteristics that are expected of all professionally developed software. (Pressman)
  • Quality means best for certain conditions…(a) the actual use and (b) the selling price. (Feigenbaum, 1983)
  • Quality] means that the organization’s culture is defined by and supports the constant attainment of customer satisfaction through an integrated system of tools, techniques, and training. (Sashkin & Kiser, 1993)

There is not a single definition of quality. Quality based on different scenarios for example:

  • Customer satisfaction:
    If the product or service meets the customer’s requirements and expectation.
  • Consistency:
    Consistency direct relates to the quality. Consistency is customer demand. Consistency should be maintained from staring to last procedure but consistency should be in positive manner.
  • Perfection: If product has zero defects and doing it right the first time.
  • Speed of Delivery: If product deliver on time. It can be webpage loading etc…
  • Compliance with policies and procedures: Policies and procedures should be proper documented and approved so that you can compliance.

What are the Quality Pillars?

  • Quality Control (Software Testing): The set of procedures used by organizations to ensure that a software product will meet its quality goals at the best value to the customer.
  • Quality Assurance: is a systematic process of checking to see whether a product or service being developed is meeting specified requirements.
  • Quality Improvement (Process Improvement): is the purposeful change of a process to improve the reliability of achieving outcome.

What does the mean of Quality Policy?
The vision of any organization with respect to quality is called quality policy. The quality policy is established for quality assurance. The quality policy should be
■ Includes the purpose and goals.
■ Describes quality assurance concepts.
■ It can be derived from ISO 9001.

Ensure the following points before
■ Is appropriate to the organization
■ Includes a commitment to requirements or/and continual improvement
■ Is communicated and understood within the organization
■ Is periodically reviewed for suitability

What is Quality Management?
Quality management is making sure that the product or service meets a certain quality.
The act of overseeing all activities and tasks needed to maintain a desired level of excellence.
Planning, assurance, control, and improvement are the activities of quality management.

What is the Life Cycle of Quality Strategy?
■ Plan Strategy

  • Identify the problem area
  • Prepare for change
  • Establish goals

■ Implement Strategy

  • Implementation changes

■ Monitor Strategy

  • Evaluate progress and criteria

■ Assessment or Reassessment

  • Evaluate outcome
  • What worked, What didn’t

FURPS Quality Model?
This model is developed at Hewlett-Packard and first publicly elaborated by Grady and Caswell.
Major Quality Attributes are:
■ Functionality – Capability (Size & Generality of Feature Set), Reusability (Compatibility, Interoperability, Portability), Security (Safety & Exploitability)
■ Usability (UX) – Human Factors, Aesthetics, Consistency, Documentation, Responsiveness
■ Reliability – Availability (Failure Frequency (Robustness/Durability/Resilience), Failure Extent & Time-Length (Recoverability/Survivability)), Predictability (Stability), Accuracy (Frequency/Severity of Error)
■ Performance – Speed, Efficiency, Resource Consumption (power, ram, cache, etc.), Throughput, Capacity, Scalability
■ Supportability (Serviceability, Maintainability, Sustainability, Repair Speed) – Testability, Flexibility (Modifiability, configurability, Adaptability, Extensibility, Modularity), Installability, Localizability)

What are the main process model in SQA?
■ Agile
■ Devops
■ Waterfall development methodology
■ Prototyping model
■ Spiral model
■ Incremental model

What are the processes of Software requirement engineering?
■ Elicitation
■ Analysis
■ Specification
■ Validation

What are the Entry Criteria of Software testing phases?
■ Development has been completed
■ Unit test coverage has been achieved
■ Code has been properly reviewed

What are the Exit Criteria for SQA testing phases?
■ All requirements have been transformed into test cases
■ All test cases have been executed
■ No Critical bug in the open state
■ No High priority bug in the open state
■ No Medium priority bug in the open state

What are the processes of the software testing phase?
■ Test planning
■ Test Specification
■ Test environment creation
■ Test execution
■ Defect Management
■ Evaluate exit criteria

What are the differences between Validation and Verification in SQA?
■ Verification: Check all documented requirements are completed.
■ Validation: Check all documented requirements are performing.